• Protection and Control

    Wide-Area Control system

    If by means of communication regional or system-wide data is available, wide-area control systems (WACS) can be deployed that exceed the functionalities of local control and respond faster than manual control from a control center. Thereby, WACS can contribute as an effective additional layer to prevent blackouts.

    Besides the benefit of fast control in contingency cases, dynamic power flow control is also possible if fast controllable equipment such as HVDC and FACTS devices are use. In this context, wide-area damping control with respect to oscillations in large-scale electrical transmission systems is subject of current research. Furthermore, wide-area congestion management by centralized  and decentralized power flow control concepts have been utilised  to respond in real-time to contingencies, thus contributing to system stability, and to gain the economic benefits.

    Functions of WACS:

    1. Power flow control
    2. Reactive power control
    3. Wide area damping control

    Wide-Area Protection system (WAPS)

    It is a automated protection system that is able to handle large disturbances and to prevent  blackouts in large power systems. WAPS in combination with various Special Protection Schemes (SPS) form a higher level of protection system. The response time of this higher level of protection system is in the range of milliseconds up to minutes depending on the application and the communication infrastructure. The major application of this system is applied for unforeseen contingencies where actions with very short response time are necessary in order to prevent wide spreading failures or even blackouts. Most common applications are central coordinated load or generation shedding, reactive power balancing and islanding.

    Functions of WAPS:

    1. Supply demand balancing
    2. Control of WACS
    3. System protection


    Role of WAMPAC System in Smart Grid:

    1. Maintaining Reliability, Stability, and Security against Large Disturbances.
    2. Management of Large Numbers of Intermittent Generation.
    3. Maintaining Power Quality.
    4. Increasing Transmission Efficiency.