• Smart Grid Functions

    SG functions are as follows :


    Enhanced fault protection: Enhanced fault protection means fast and exact fault identification, location, isolation and service restoration. This can be achieved by using high resolution sensors to distinguish various fault signatures.


    Fault current limiting: Fault current limiting can be achieved through sensors, communications, information processing, and actuators that allow the utility to use a higher degree of network coordination to reconfigure the system to prevent fault currents from exceeding damaging levels. Fault current limiting can also be achieved through the implementation of special stand alone devices known as Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) which act to automatically limit high through currents that occur during faults.


    Diagnosis and notification of equipment condition: Diagnosis and notification of equipment condition is defined as on-line monitoring and analysis of equipment, its performance, and operating environment in order to detect abnormal conditions (e.g., high number of equipment operations, temperature, or vibration). Asset managers and operations personnel can then be automatically notified to respond to conditions that increase the probability of equipment failure.


    Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control: Wide area monitoring and visualization requires time synchronized sensors (PMUs), communications, information processing and actuators that make it possible for the condition of the bulk power system to be observed and understood in real-time so that protective, preventative, or corrective action can be taken.


    Dynamic capability rating: Dynamic capability rating can be achieved through real-time determination of an element’s (e.g., line, transformer etc.) ability to carry load based on electrical and environmental conditions (e.g., line tension, temperature, wind speed).




    Power Flow control: Flow control requires techniques that are applied at transmission and distribution levels to influence the path that power (real & reactive) travels. This functionality is enabled by tools such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), phase angle regulating transformers (PARs), series capacitors, and very low impedance superconductors.


    Adaptive protection: Adaptive protection uses adjustable protective relay settings (e.g., current, voltage, feeders, and equipment) that can change in real time based on signals from local sensors or a central control system. This is particularly useful for feeder transfers and two-way power flow issues associated with high DER penetration.


    Automated feeder and line switching: Automated feeder and line switching is realized through automatic isolation and reconfiguration of faulted segments of distribution feeders or transmission lines via sensors, controls, switches, and communications systems. These devices can operate autonomously in response to local events or in response to signals from a central control system.


    Automated islanding and reconnection: Automated islanding and reconnection is achieved by automated separation and subsequent reconnection (autonomous synchronization) of an independently operated portion of the T&D system (i.e., microgrid) from the interconnected electric grid. A microgrid is an integrated energy system consisting of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources which, as an integrated system, can operate in parallel with the grid or as an island.


    Automated voltage and VAR control: Automated voltage and VAR control requires coordinated operation of reactive power resources such as capacitor banks, voltage regulators, transformer load-tap changers, and distributed generation (DG) with sensors, controls, and communications systems. These devices could operate autonomously in response to local events or in response to signals from a central control system.


    Real-time load measurement and management: This function provides real-time measurement of customer consumption and management of load through Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems (smart meters, two-way communications) and embedded appliance controllers that help customers make informed energy use decisions via real-time price signals, time-of-use (TOU) rates, and service options.


    Real-time load transfer: Real-time load transfer is achieved through real-time feeder reconfiguration and optimization to relieve load on equipment, improve asset utilization, improve distribution system efficiency, and enhance system performance.


    Customer electricity use optimization: Customer electricity use optimization is possible if customers are provided with information to make educated decisions about their electricity use. Customers could be able to optimize toward multiple goals such as cost, reliability, convenience, and environmental impact.